They also proposed that Coptotermes gestroi be given the common name of "Asian subterranean termite." Both species have a large fontanelle, when viewed from above, both also have a tear drop-shaped head; The soldiers of two species may be separated as: - Coptotermes gestroi soldiers have one pair of hairs near the rim of the fontanelle and the lateral profile of the top of the head just behind the fontanelle shows a weak bulge. Klinkii. 384 ). Kirton and Brown (2003) determined that "Haviland's subterranean termite," Coptotermes havilandi Holmgren, was a newer second name given to a termite that already had the name Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann). Coptotermes formosanus. The Formosan termite acquired its name because it was first described in Taiwan in the early 20th century, but C. formosanus is probably endemic to southern China. Alates, or swarmers, are about 5/16 inch (14-15mm) in overall length, including their wings. The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. Before sharing sensitive information online, make sure you’re on a .gov or .mil site by inspecting your browser’s address (or “location”) bar. Bad Bug. The .gov means it’s official.Federal government websites always use a .gov or .mil domain. Subterranean termites are the most destructive termites in North America. Scientific Name: Coptotermes formosanus; Size: Formosan termite colonies consist of one queen and one king, with multiple generations of workers, soldiers and reproductives, that all measure around 1/8 to 1/4 inch in length. When they find a food source above ground they build a safe pathway or “mud tube” to create a connection from their home to the food. Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL) Source: Biological Invasion (Springer Nature Switzerland) Abstract. What they need for activity are … Research and Extension. What It Is: The Formosan subterranean termite is a member of the insect order Blattodea, which includes cockroaches and termites. Pest Notes are peer-reviewed scientific publications about specific pests or pest management topics, directed at California's home and landscape audiences. GAINESVILLE—A new subterranean termite recently discovered in South Florida may be just as destructive as the dreaded Formosan termite, say University of Florida scientists. Desert termite alates’ wings and bodies are light brown but subterranean termites have black bodies and transparent wings with veins. Coptotermes formosanus. [12] Historic structures in Hawaii have been threatened, such as Iolani Palace in Honolulu. Once established, Formosan termites have never been eradicated from an area. With possibly more than 10 million mouths to feed in their colonies, Formosan termites … Coptotermes formosanus is the most economically serious pest in Hawaii, costing residents $100 million a year. Coptotermes formosanus is a generalist, colonial, social insect building colonies either above or below ground. The diet of the subterranean termite consists of anything that contains wood fiber (homes, building, live trees), crops, and plants. In New Orleans, 30-50% of the city's 4,000 historic live oak trees are believed to be infested, with total damage costing the city $300 million a year. When the pair finds a moist crevice with wooden materials, they form the royal chamber and lay about 15 to 30 eggs. 12 (1), 5-7. After a brief flight, alates shed their wings. Bad Bug. Texas A&M University. The Formosan subterranean termite acquired its name because it was first described in Taiwan in the early 1900s, but Coptotermes formosanus is probably endemic to Taiwan and southern China. Appearance. Termites have two pair of equal length wings while ants have two pair of unequal length wings. Agricultural Commissioner. Formosan Termite Facts. In the United States, along with another species, Coptotermes gestroi, introduced from Southeast Asia, they are responsible for tremendous damage to property resulting in large treatment and repair costs. [9] Progeny of colonies feeding on pecan and American ash Fraxinus americana had significantly greater survival than progeny of colonies feeding on other wood species. Crop Protection Compendium. The Formosan termite (Coptotermes formosanus) is a species of termite that has been transported worldwide from its native range in southern China to Taiwan (formerly known as Formosa, where it gets its name), Japan, South Africa, Sri Lanka,[1] Hawaii, and the continental United States. These termites tunnel within the soil, connecting their large, underground network to a food source. This site is also protected by an SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) certificate that’s been signed by the U.S. government. Females immediately search for nesting sites, with males following closely behind. During the 1960s, it was found in Texas, Louisiana, and South Carolina. Currently the Formosan subterranean termite is found across the southern U.S. and is spreading inward, but winter temperatures will probably halt permanent establishment beyond a northern limit. Common name: formosan subterranean termite scientific name: Coptotermes formosanus Good Bug or Bad Bug? Coptotermes gestroi is a ve… Within the Blattodea order, this species is part of the infraorder Isoptera, which includes termites only – about 3,100 species worldwide. Subterranean termite’s scientific name is Rhinotermitidae, genus Reticulitermes, Coptotermes and Heterotermes. Their distribution will probably continue to be restricted to southern areas of the United States because the eggs will not hatch below about 20 °C (68 °F). Distribution. Their bodies are pale yellow to brownish yellow in color. The Formosan termite (Coptotermes formosanus) is a species of termite that has been transported worldwide from its native range in southern China to Taiwan (formerly known as Formosa, where it gets its name), Japan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Hawaii, and the continental United States. However, they are known to chew through foam insulation boards, thin lead and copper sheeting, plaster, asphalt, and some plastics. Formosan Termite Habitat. Start studying Invasive Species - Scientific Names. A colony may reach substantial numbers to cause severe damage and produce alates within three to five years.[10]. Scientific Name: Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, 1909 (ITIS) A mature Formosan colony can consume as much as 13 ounces of wood a day (about 400 g) and can severely damage a structure in as little as three months. The workers and soldiers may live 3–5 years with caste proportions around 360 workers per 40 soldiers. ( https://www.cabi.org/cpc ); and Su N-Y, Scheffrahn RH (2019) Formosan subterranean termite. They have translucent wings that are densely covered with small hairs. Coptotermes formosanus. SIZE: The typical Formosan alate (i.e., winged termite, or swarmer) measures around one-half of an inch in length, wings included. Coptotermes gestroi is similar (see Fact Sheet no. One to two months later, the queen lays the second batch of eggs. Subterranean termite species are the most destructive for wooden constructions. A single colony may contain several million individuals (compared with several hundred thousand termites for other subterranean termite species) that forage up to 300 feet (100 m) in soil. [18], Learn how and when to remove this template message, "An annotated checklist of termites (Isoptera) from Sri Lanka", Species Profile- Formosan Subterranean Termite (, United States National Agricultural Library, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Formosan_subterranean_termite&oldid=982687354, Articles needing additional references from September 2020, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 October 2020, at 18:12. [17], Impacts of increased use of pesticides to control the termite population has led to higher costs for homeowners and destructive effects on the environment, including contamination of water supplies caused by runoff. [13], It has its greatest impact in North America. The queen of the colony has a lifespan around 15 years and is capable of producing up to 2,000 eggs per day. Colonies feeding on nutritionally supplemented, cellulose-based matrix showed similar fitness characteristics as colonies feeding on the best wood treatments. Subterranean termites by far cause the most termite damage and there is a greater danger of infestation by subterranean termites to homes in the United States than any other termite. The ground provides the moisture needed by the subterranean termites. A single colony of C. formosanus may produce over 70,000 alates. Good Bug or Bad Bug? Center for Urban and Structural Entomology. Formosan Subterranean Termite "Adult" Formosan Subterranean Termite "Soldier" Formosan Subterranean Termite "Soldier" Scientific Name. Cassava Newsletter. Assessment of untreated Papua New Guinea timbers for resistance to subterranean termites. These results indicate that differences observed in colony fitness can be partially explained by nutritional value of the food treatment, raising the possibility that wood from different tree species has different nutritional values to the Formosan subterranean termites. Formosan termites (Coptotermes Formosanus) prefer warm climates and are heavily abundant in the southern states, Louisiana included. This destructive species was apparently transported to Japan prior to the 17th century and to Hawaii in the late 19th century. [8] Bacteria and other single-celled organisms live in the termite digestive system and digest cellulose, providing nutrition and energy for these termites. Formosan termites are rarely found north of 35°N. North Carolina State University. [6] Crops include sugarcane. Within two to four weeks, young termites hatch from the eggs. The soldiers of C formosanus resemble those of C gestroi. Widespread. Common Name. Asia, Africa (South Africa), North America (including Hawaii), the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands), Oceania. COLOR: Formosan swarmers are yellowish-brown. 4 (2), 19-27. In 1980, a well-established colony was thriving in a condominium in Hallandale Beach, Florida. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Wongkobrat A, 1988. Formosan termites prefer warm climates and densely populate certain areas of the American South. Like many other termites, the Formosan termite feeds on wood and other materials that contain cellulose, such as paper and cardboard. Subterranean termites live in the ground, unlike drywood termites which living inside the wood they eat. The subterranean termite is by far the most destructive termite. Louisiana State University Agricultural Center. National Invasive Species Information Center, Google Images - Formosan Subterranean Termite, Invasive.org - Formosan Subterranean Termite, YouTube - Invasive Subterranean Termites in Florida, Plantwise Technical Factsheet - Formosan Subterranean Termite (, The Quiet Invasion: A Guide to Invasive Species of the Galveston Bay Area - Formosan Subterranean Termite, Formosan Termites in North Carolina (Jun 2018), Biology of Subterranean Termites in the Eastern United States, Identifying the Formosan Subterranean Termite, Pest Notes: Subterranean and Other Termites, United States Department of Agriculture—Agriculture Research Service research on targeted management of the Formosan subterranean termite, Current distribution of the Formosan subterranean termite and other termite species in Louisiana (PDF | 103 KB). University of California. Scientific Name. It really doesn’t matter to them. Google. Scientific Name. Live trees include oak, ash, and water-bound cypress. These eggs will eventually be nursed by termites from the first batch of eggs. The https:// means all transmitted data is encrypted — in other words, any information or browsing history that you provide is transmitted securely. Subterranean Formosan Termites. Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), were collected from monitoring stations by using the method of Su and Scheffrahn (1986). Scientific name: Coptotermes formosanus. Coptotermes formosanus, known in its native China as the ‘House White Ant’, was introduced to the southeast USA likely in the 1950s, where it is known as the Formosan subterranean termite. Common name: Termite Scientific Name: Varies Order: Isoptera Description:Drywood termites are light yellow to black with clear to smoky gray wings, about 7/16 inch long. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Cooperative Extension. Formosan subterranean termite (FST), ground termites, Arrived accidentally on ships from the Pacific (, Damages landscape trees and causes significant structural damage to buildings (. [7] What are Formosan Termites? Formosan subterranean termite. Also known as an introduced subterranean termite, the Formosan termite is found in states across the southern U.S., including Alabama, Florida, California, Georgia, Hawaii, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, North Carolina, Texas and Tennessee. Click Here for More Info. Click Here for More Info. Weights and Measures. What It Is: The Formosan subterranean termite is a member of the insect order Blattodea, which includes cockroaches and termites.Within the Blattodea order, this species is part of the infraorder Isoptera, which includes termites only – about 3,100 species worldwide. Coptotermes gestroi is similar ( see Fact Sheet no. Formosan Termites These termites have originated from China and are commonly found in southern U.S. regions such as Georgia, Hawaii, Texas, Mississippi, California, and Tennessee. Insect pests of cassava in Thailand. Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Galveston Bay Estuary Program; Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC). University of Georgia. The Formosan termite is also known as the “super termite” for its destructive capabilities. The workers provide the food, soldiers defend the nest, and reproductives breed the colony. Australian Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre. It is also known as Coptotermes intrudens. It is recorded from Marshall Islands. Common name: Formosan subterranean termite. [16] C. formosanus is the most destructive, difficult to control, and economically important species of termite in the southern United States. Their colonies of two to ten million individuals are found underground in elaborate nests. 2002. County of Los Angeles (California). [15] In North America, C. formosanus creates significantly bigger colonies, and therefore more damage, than native US termites, which reside underground and enter buildings only to forage. It is also known as Coptotermes intrudens. Information from CABI (2019) Coptotermes formosanus (Formosan subterranean termite). On Mississippi's Formosan termite-plagued Gulf Coast, ARS and other Operation FullStop scientists are testing several new pest controls, including a new bait formula containing Metarhizium anisopliae, a fungus that's approved for use in killing certain native subterranean termites. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension. A lot of wood. Wu H J, Wang Z N, Ou C F, Tsai R S, Chow Y S, 1991. 384). This suggests that feeding preference of C. formosanus is at least partially influenced by the nutritional value of the food source. Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program. [4] Older and less vigorous colonies contained workers that had a larger body mass than workers in younger colonies.[5]. Hosts Formosan subterranean termite. Reticulitermes hesperus. [2] Termites have a caste system, including a king, queen, workers, soldiers, and alates (winged termites). The ground provides the moisture needed by the subterranean termites. Formosan Subterranean Termites. Patchouli (/ p ə ˈ tʃ uː l i /; Pogostemon cablin), from Tamil paccuḷi, is a species of plant from the family Lamiaceae, commonly called the "mint" or "deadnettle" family.The plant grows as a bushy perennial herb, with erect stems reaching around 75 centimetres (2.5 ft) in height and bearing small, pale pink-white flowers. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. YouTube; University of Florida. [3] A colony is surrounded by an extensive foraging system consisting of tunnels underneath the ground, with a mature colony containing millions of termites. Desert termite alates measure from 1/2 to 5/8 inches in length, whereas subterranean termites alates are less than a 1/2-inch long. When they find a food source above ground they build a safe pathway or “mud tube” to create a connection from their home to the food. Formosan termites infest a wide variety of structures (including boats and high-rise condominiums) and can damage trees. In Chinese and Japanese literature, Formosan termite may refer to other species. Subterranean termites live in the ground, unlike drywood termites which living inside the wood they eat. They are serious wood pests or destructors. The reproductives nurse the first group of young termites until the young termites reach third instar. Formosan termites are an invasive species that originated in East Asia. In the U.S., Formosan termites prefer the warm southern climates of states like Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, and Texas, where they organize into huge subterranean colonies and build intricate mud-tube nests inside the walls of structures. Electronic Data Information Source Publication #ENY121. They have been reported from 11 states, including Alabama, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas. Scientific Name. [11] By the 1950s, it was reported in South Africa. University of Florida. The Formosan termite is often nicknamed the super-termite because of its destructive habits due to the large size of its colonies and its ability to consume wood at a rapid rate. The Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) is native to mainland China, but has been spread throughout the world by human activity. BEHAVIOR: Formosan termites are always hungry, and they eat wood. Colonies of C. formosanus feeding on pecan, Carya illinoensis and red gum, Liquidambar styraciflua produced significantly more progeny than colonies feeding on other wood species tested. Formosan Termite Habits. It is native to tropical regions of Asia. Messenger, M.T., N.Y. Su, and R.H. Scheffrahn. This destructive species was apparently transported t… Because of its population size and foraging range, the presence of a colony poses serious threats to nearby structures. Of untreated Papua New Guinea timbers for resistance to subterranean termites have black bodies and transparent wings with veins feeding... Advanced Research Center ( HARC ) originated in East asia as the “ super termite ” for destructive! Are light brown but subterranean termites unequal length wings while ants have pair... The nutritional value of the American South related content view all resources for Formosan subterranean termite ),! 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Colonies of two to ten million individuals are found underground in elaborate.... Scientific name but subterranean termites alates are less than a 1/2-inch long best wood.!, social insect building colonies either above or below ground form the royal chamber and lay about 15 30... And other study tools that feeding preference of C. formosanus is at least partially influenced by the value..., unlike drywood termites which living inside the wood they eat the 1950s, it reported!

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